Although the terms "astronaut" and "cosmonaut" were coined independently during the Cold War space race and don't really mean anything different, we seem to have adopted both of them in English, plus some others like "taikonaut" so that we can't talk about a space traveller without also designating their nationality. That seems counter-productive if we're forming a worldwide society, to me.
Mokalus of Borg
PS - Although, of course, we don't yet have a worldwide space program, either.
PPS - Unless you count private enterprises, but those seem less global, to me.